The Search for Manga de Clavo
One of Santa Anna´s Lost Haciendas

Photographs and Text by John Todd, Jr.

One of Santa Anna´s Old Haciendas
Puente Nacional, Ver.
Santa Anna was from Here
125 years after his death I am beginning to see Gen. José Antonio López de Santa Anna in a different light, especially when I found that you can go visit the haciendas he once owned. That´s what makes it a lot more interesting.

Gen. José Antonio López de Santa Anna is probably the most hated man in Texas history.

When I was in public school, that is what I was taught. He was the Monster of the Alamo.

Later I found in Mexico, he is not exactly the object of pride either.

Here are some accounts of his last arrival from exile and his final years of neglect living in Mexico City:

Sources for the Following Quotes:
Mexico and Her Military Chieftains by Fay Robinson, published 1847

Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West by Frank C. Hanighen

El Presidente by Clarence R. Wharton.

More About these sources on Santa Anna on Sons of Dewitt Colony

A Crippled Old Man
"...in 1874, an old, crippled man, supported by two women, who walked on either side of him, disembarked at the wharf of Vera Cruz. As they made their painful, tedious way along the streets, looking for a cheap lodging house, no one recognized in the penniless, pitiful person the former dashing El Presidente. "

From "El Presidente" by Clarence R. Wharton

A Stranger Slept at Manga de Clavo
When his identity was known, it made no impression, and created little comment. After a time, he arranged for passage to the capitol, and they rode unnoticed in a public coach through the scenes of former grandeur.

A stranger slept at Manga de Clavo, and as the coach rumbled into his native city of Jalapa, his coming was void of consequence. In an obscure, mean abode at the capitol, he lived for two more weary years, wholly ignored. He applied for a restoration of his rank, and for governmental aid, but his request was denied.

From "El Presidente" by Clarence R. Wharton

Alone and in Squalor
Alone and in squalor, he died on June 21, 1876. A week later, the Two Republics, a leading journal in the City of Mexico, carried this simple obituary:

"General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna died in this city on the 21st. However he may have been condemned by parties, his career formed a brilliant and important portion of the History of Mexico, and future historians will differ in their judgment of his merits. General Santa Anna outlived his usefulness and ambition, and died at the ripe age of eighty-four. Peace to his ashes..."

From "El Presidente" by Clarence R. Wharton

santa anna

No Guns Boomed for Him at San Juan de Ulua
......In 1874 the ban of exile was removed and he returned to Mexico. But no guns boomed from San Juan Ulloa as he landed; a few friends met and escorted him not to a fine coach bound for Manga de Clavo, but to a railroad "Car" which rolled him past his old hacienda where, alas, a stranger now slept. He was met by his family and some old soldiers, among them the faithful adjutant Gimenez, at the station in Mexico City, and went to his home in the Calle de Vergara. There he held a sorry court with octogenarians and broken-down generals coming to pay him visits.

"Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West" by Frank C. Hanighen

santa anna

Upon Deaf Ears
As befitted a former President of the Republic, he wrote to the incumbent of that office, one whom he had never known, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada, asking for an appointment. The President subtly put him off by insisting that to climb the National Palace steps would be too much of a task for the ex-President because of his mutilated leg, and suggested that Santa Anna should wait until he, Lerdo, should pay a call at the house in the Calle Vergara. But Santa Anna waited and waited; Lerdo did not come.

The rest of the government and the press were not so kind. On the curious basis that national defeats are an occasion for anniversaries, the government celebrated the battle of Churrubusco on the site itself with speeches and reviews of troops.

"Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West" by Frank C. Hanighen

santa anna

Even Less Charity
But it issued no invitation to attend to the ex-President who had commanded the Mexican forces so creditably there. Aggrieved, he wrote his reminiscences of the battle for a newspaper, but the Republican organs ridiculed it and others with even less charity reprinted our hero's correspondence with Estrada regarding Maximilian's projected Empire which hurt still more. He talked about leaving ungrateful and spiteful Mexico.

But he had no money, living on the bounty of his son-in-law, for the Government steadfastly refused him a pension. Finally Escandon, the famous profiteer, died and left him fourteen thousand pesos. But even with this windfall, he stayed on in Mexico, perhaps from sheer fatigue of age.

"Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West" by Frank C. Hanighen

santa anna

Always Faithful
What a touching picture his friend Gimenez paints, of the former President visiting the shrine of Guadalupe. After all he had been faithful to this, the patron Virgin of Mexico, in his fashion, for had he not favored her above the "gachupin" Virgin of the Remedies? And had he not named one of his illegitimate daughters Guadalupe? An abbé led him up to the high altar, opened the glass door and allowed him to kiss the sacred picture.

Turning he surveyed this famous nave where in former days he had so often walked in splendor, with no less than a mitred Archbishop escorting him on the occasion of a victory imagined or real, on his Saint's day, on the anniversary of the loss of his leg, on the parade of the Order of Guadalupe that time when he had sat so regally on a dais; he had countless gaudy memories of this shrine.

"Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West" by Frank C. Hanighen

santa anna

The Former Monster of the Alamo
Finally, laboriously toiling down the steps, he hobbled out the door just an old man with a wooden leg. His ills increased, his eyesight failed and complete senility set in.

The Flower of Mexico, now a shrewish middleaged woman, gave him just enough attention to see that the Escandon legacy was conjugally disposed of, and he died penniless on June the 21st, 1876. Forty coaches followed him to a modest tomb in Guadalupe cemetery...

And this was the monster of the Alamo...Mexicans say alas, paybacks for misdeeds in this life sometimes are often cruel indeed, and hurt us where we feel it the most: in our pride. Santa Anna was never humble, but in the end, he was humbled.

"Santa Anna: The Napoleon of the West" by Frank C. Hanighen

A Final Tribute
of the body of General
by his last Secretary of War

General Santa Anna has died.

At the sight of this tomb, enemies slowly fade away and admirers are reborn: the mistakes of the man are forgotten and his glories remembered; the first belong to his era; the second belong to the nation. Today, no other voice should be heard but that of the nation, sweet and tender, as it bids farewell with respect and gratitude to the hero of Tampico.

That is my objective, and I have come to this place to pay tribute and homage to the last of the heroes of our independence, not only because national gratitude demands it, but also because I feel within me a secret impulse to honor in death, he, who while breathing the breath of life, did me honor by associating with me his authority. To be thankful to someone who shared his glory is a duty between men of honor.

Only God is great, said Bossuet. Indeed, only the Almighty is immortal and his greatness eternal. But when a man dies, the glories achieved in his lifetime do not perish as easily. A loved one may cease to exist and his body bathed with tears, but the deeds which freed his brothers from foreign oppression, thus providing liberty and a name to the homeland will be passed from generation to generation and will, eventually, be cleansed of the venom injected by his contemporaries so that they will be preserved, alive and purified, in those golden pages of posthumous history which are the pride of a free people.

Do not doubt it: The events I will refer to will be during the coming years a perpetual fountain of sublime inspiration and they will be seen with each passing day with a growing admiration, for such is the justice of men...

Beginning of the Funeral Speech at the Burial of Santa Anna.

Late Update
In April of 2006, I discovered that this was the old Hacienda of Paso de Varas. More information about this hacienda is in this article called Found at Last: Paso de Varas.

From the Highway
Old Hacienda Buildings Seen from the Atalaya
Puente Nacional, Ver.
Mysterious Hacienda at Puente Nacional
On a previous trip to Puente Nacional, I climbed the Cerro to the Watchtower of the Concepción, looked down and saw an abandoned hacienda in ruins.

Later on the internet I saw pictures of the same plantation taken by Dr. Antonio de la Cova, of Rose-Hulman University when he took his students on a trip to Veracruz during spring break last year.

I sent Dr. de la Cova an email asking how he found out the name of the hacienda.

He replied that the people in the town of Puente Nacional told him the name was "Manga de Clavo".
Ruins Among the Weeds
Hip High Grass
I had seen it from the highway many times, but it never occurred to me it might be Santa Anna´s old Hacienda.

In late January, the area is hip high in grass.

Nonetheless, I continued my explorations of the area looking to document the lost hacienda of Santa Anna.

In the silence of the sound of morning crickets, I waded through the hip high grass, wondering if the land owner would come out with a shotgun to ask what a gringo was doing on his property.
Don Felipe Rodriguez Vargas
I was rehearsing what I would tell him. It didn´t sound good. He would think I was a treasure hunter.

Don Felipe
Then out of nowhere there appeared a man.He was friendly and introduced himself as Don Felipe Rodriguez Vargas.

He has lived in Puente Nacional since 1954 and told me that the ruins are "Manga de Clavo" once owned by Santa Anna.

The Dreaded "Pica-Pica"
Almost as soon as I waded into the grass I had begun to feel an itching on my legs, kind of like ants crawling up the inside of my pants. I looked and couldn´t see anyting.
Las Poblanas
I had heard of the "pica-pica", and I guess that´s what it was. "Pica-pica" feels like ants or fleas crawling up your legs, and you don´t dare scratch.

Glimpse of Manga de Clavo in 1843
In 1843, Francis Calderon de la Barca, a Scottish girl married to the new Spanish Ambassador to Mexico spent two years in Mexico.

"Life in Mexico"
She wrote to family and friends a series of letters rich in descriptions about her experiences travelling throughout the country which were later published as, "Life in Mexico".
Looking from the inside out
Puente Nacional, Ver.
Upon her arrival in Veracruz her entourage is invited to breakfast at Santa Anna´s hacienda "Manga de Clavo".

Here is what she wrote about her trip as far as Puente Nacional.

Breakfast at "Manga de Clavo"
"...We had a visit yesterday from the English and French consuls in Veracruz. M. de — prophesies broken arms and dislodged teeth, if we persist in our plans of taking the diligence,–but all things balanced, we think it preferable to every other conveyance. "

General Victoria returned to see us this morning, and was very civil and amiable, offering very cordially every service and assistance in his power.
Notice where the rafters used to be
Up Early
We are to rise tomorrow at two, being invited to breakfast with General Santa Anna, at his country-seat Manga de Clavo, a few leagues from this.

We have been sitting on the balcony till very late, enjoying the moonlight and refreshing breeze from the sea, and as we rise before daybreak, our rest will be but short.

The Trip to "Manga de Clavo"
...We rose by candlelight at two o'clock, with the pleasant prospect of leaving Vera Cruz and of seeing Santa Anna.

Two boxes, called carriages, drawn by mules, were at the door, to convey us to Magna de Clavo.
East across the Courtyard
Puente Nacional, Ver.
Señor V—o, C—n, the commander of the Jason, and I being encased in them, we set off half-asleep.

By the faint light, we could just distinguish as we passed the gates, and the carriages ploughed their way along nothing but sand–sand–as far as the eye could reach; a few leagues of Arabian desert.

(This sounds like a description of Playa Norte, just north of Veracruz along the highway to Antigua.)

An Indian Village on the way
At length we began to see symptoms of vegetation; occasional palm-trees and flowers, and by the time we had reached a pretty Indian village, where we stopped to change mules.
Looking from the inside out
Puente Nacional, Ver.
The light had broke in, and we seemed to have been transported, as if by enchantment, from a desert to a garden.

It was altogether a picturesque and striking scene; the huts composed of bamboo, and thatched with palm-leaves.

The Indian women with their long black hair standing at the doors with their half-naked children, the mules rolling themselves on the ground, according to their favourite fashion, snow-white goats browsing amongst the palm-trees, and the air so soft and balmy.

The first fresh breath of morning; the dew-drops still glittering on the broad leaves of the banana and palm, and all round so silent, cool, and still.

The huts, though poor, were clean; no windows, but a certain subdued light makes its way through the leafy canes.
Two Doors
Looking from the inside out
Puente Nacional, Ver.
We procured some tumblers of new milk, and having changed mules, pursued our journey, now no longer through hills of sand, but across the country, through a wilderness of trees and flowers, the glowing productions of tierra caliente.

We arrived about five at Manga de Clavo, after passing through leagues of natural garden, the property of Santa Anna...

Hacienda Manga de Clavo
The house is pretty, slight-looking, and kept in nice order. We were received by an aide-de-camp in uniform, and by several officers, and conducted to a large, cool, agreeable apartment, with little furniture.

La Señora de Santa Anna
Shortly the Señora de Santa Anna entered , tall, thin, and, at that early hour of the morning, dressed to receive us in clear white muslin, with white satin shoes and with very splendid diamond earrings, brooch, and rings.
Across the Courtyard
Puente Nacional, Ver.
She was very polite, and introduced her daughter Guadalupe, a miniature of her mamma, in features and costume.

Santa Anna
In a little while entered General Santa Anna himself; a gentlemanly, good-looking, quietly-dressed, rather melancholy-looking person, with one leg, apparently somewhat of an invalid, and to us the most interesting person in the group.

He has a sallow complexion, fine dark eyes, soft and penetrating, and an interesting expression of face.

Knowing nothing of his past history, one would have said a philosopher, living in dignified retirement–one who had tried the world, and found that all was vanity–one who had suffered ingratitude, and who, if he were ever persuaded
Entrance through the Archways
Puente Nacional, Ver.
to emerge from his retreat, would only do so, Cincinnatus-like, to benefit his country.

It is strange, how frequently this expression of philosophic resignation, of placid sadness, is to be remarked on the countenances of the deepest, most ambitious, and most designing men.

Sr. C—n gave him a letter from the Queen, written under the supposition of his being still President, with which he seemed much pleased, but merely made the innocent observation, "How very well the Queen writes!"

It was only now and then, that the expression of his eye was startling, especially when he spoke of his leg, which is cut off below the knee.
Looking From the Inside Out
Puente Nacional, Ver.
He speaks of it frequently, like Sir John Ramorny of his bloody hand, and when he gives an account of his wound, and alludes to the French on that day, his countenance assumes that air of bitterness ...

Otherwise, he made himself very agreeable, spoke a great deal of the United States, and of the persons he had known there, and in his manners was quiet and gentlemanlike, and altogether a more polished hero than I had expected to see.

To judge from the past, he will not long remain in his present state of inaction, besides having within him, according to Zavala, "a principle of action for ever impelling him forward."

A Formal Breakfast
En attendant, breakfast was announced.

The Señora de Santa Anna led me in. C—n was placed at the head of the table, I on his right, Santa Anna opposite, the Señora on my right.

The breakfast was very handsome, consisting of innumerable Spanish dishes, meat and vegetables, fish and fowl, fruit and sweatmeats, all served in white and gold French porcelain, with coffee, wines, etc.
Looking From the Inside Out
Puente Nacional, Ver.

After breakfast, the Señora having dispatched an officer for her cigar-case, which was gold, with a diamond latch, offered me a cigar, which I having declined, she lighted her own, a little paper "cigarito," and the gentlemen followed her good example.

Santa Anna´s Estate
We then proceeded to look at the out-houses and offices; at the General's favourite war-horse, an old white charger, probably a sincerer philosopher than his master; at several game-cocks, kept with especial care, cock-fighting being a favourite recreation of Santa Anna's; and at his litera, which is handsome and comfortable.

There are no gardens, but, as he observed, the whole country, which for twelve leagues square belongs to him, is a garden.
Puente Nacional, Ver.
The appearance of the family says little for the healthiness of the locale; and indeed its beauty and fertility will not compensate for its insalubrity.

As we had but a few hours to spare, the General ordered round two carriages, both very handsome, and made in the United States, one of which conveyed him and C—n, the Señora and me.

In the other were the little girl and the officers; in which order we proceeded across the country to the high-road, where the diligence and servants, with our guide, Don Miguel S—, were to overtake us.

The diligence not having arrived, we got down and sat on a stone bench, in front of an Indian cottage, where we talked,
Front Door Way
Front Door Way to the Right of the Arch
Puente Nacional, Ver.
while the young lady amused herself by eating apples, and C—n and the General remained moralizing in the carriage.

Shortly after, and just as the sun was beginning to give us a specimen of his power, our lumbering escort of Mexican soldiers galloped up (orders having been given by the government that a fresh escort shall be stationed every six leagues) and announced the approach of the diligence.

We were agreeably disappointed by the arrival of a handsome new coach, made in the United States, drawn by ten good-looking mules, and driven by a smart Yankee coachman.

Our party consisted of ourselves, Don Miguel, the captain of the Jason and his first lieutenant, who accompany us to Mexico.

The day was delightful, and every one apparently in good-humour.
Wall and a Small Tree
Puente Nacional, Ver.
We took leave of General Santa Anna, his lady and daughter, also of our hospitable entertainer, Señor V—o; got into the diligence–doors shut–all right–lash up the mules, and now for Mexico!

Resuming the Trip to Mexico City
Gradually, as in Dante's Commedia, after leaving Purgatory, typified by Vera Cruz, we seemed to draw nearer to Paradise.

The road is difficult, as the approach to Paradise ought to be, and the extraordinary jolts were sufficient to prevent us from being too much enraptured by the scenery, which increased in beauty as we advanced.

At Santa Fé and Sopilote we changed horses, and at Tolomé, one of the sites of the civil war, was the far end border of Santa Anna's twelve leagues of property.

Puente del Rey (Now Puente Nacional)
We arrived at Puente Nacional, formerly Puente del Rey, celebrated as the scene of many an engagement during the Revolution, and by occupying which, Victoria frequently prevented the passage of the Spanish troops, and that of the convoys of silver to the port.

The Route of Madame Calderón de la Barca--Across the Hacienda Manga de Clavo

The Courtyard
Puente Nacional, Ver.
Here we stopped a short time to admire the beautiful bridge thrown over the river Antigua, with its stone arches, which brought Mrs. Ward's sketch to my recollection, though it is very long since I saw the book.

We were accompanied by the commander of the fort.

It is now a peaceful-looking scene. We walked to the bridge, pulled branches of large white flowers, admired the rapid river dashing over the rocks, and the fine, bold scenery that surrounds it. The village is a mere collection of huts, with some fine trees.

Thus concluded this part of the writings of Madame Calderón de la Barca and a breakfast at Manga de Clavo. Later they continued their trip to Mexico City passing through Paso de Ovejas, Puente Nacional, and Xalapa.

Her diary of the years spent in Mexico is a fascinating look at life in those times. It was primitive and sometimes dangerous. Most of all, transportation was difficult and slow.
Puente Nacional, Ver.
A Hidden Tunnel
Next to the wall on the inside of the courtyard next to the "Camino Real", surrounded by a sheltered concrete box, and now half buried in trash, I discovered what what looked like a tunnel.

Old haciendas frequently have tunnels for hiding the family or other important people during dangerous times such as bandit attacks.

Don Felipe told me there are a series of tunnels under the hacienda, but this was a "Temascal", or a "sweat lodge" for purification purposes.

I was also told that a Temascal is a source of water like a well. I spent some time examining the construction with the old, thin red bricks, or "tabiques".

Central Mexico
The Road to Mexico City
Now Come the Questions
Where is exactly Manga de Clavo? And I wonder what it looks like today? I don´t know.

First, The Facts

If Madame Calderon de la Barca left Veracruz by carriage around 2 AM, she probably travelled past the stretch of sand dunes in Playa Norte where there are a lot of sand dunes, then through luxuriant garden like vegetation which was probably away from the coast.
Central Mexico Small
A Closer look
In December, the vegetation is still green.

The entourage arrived at Manga de Clavo around 7AM in time for breakfast. Then travelled to Santa Fe and Tolomé which was the end of the 12 league wide limits of the estate.

1. If Doña Calderon de la Barca´s letters about her breakfast at "Manga de Clavo" in late 1843, are correct, contrary to what the local people in Puente Nacional say, the abandoned hacienda there is not "Manga de Clavo". It has to be closer to Veracruz.

2. An additional fact: according to Doña Calderon de la Barca´s letters, "Manga de Clavo" covered 12 Square leagues. Local people here tell me a league is 6 km.

Therefore, the approximate dimensions of the estate should be about 3 leagues by 4 leagues (or 18 km. by 24 km.), somewhere between Tolomé and Veracruz,

3. On Santa Anna´s last trip to Mexico City in 1874, it was mentioned that his railroad car passed the hacienda...

"...a few friends met and escorted him not to a fine coach bound for Manga de Clavo, but to a railroad "Car" which rolled him past his old hacienda where, alas, a stranger now slept. "

Browsing at the INEGI governmental statistic office, I found a detailed map, and began playing around with it, peeling back 150 years of development, trying to visualize what the land looked like in times of Francis Calderon de la Barca when the Camino Real was a narrow dirt road through the sand dunes outside Veracruz.

Where could the Camino Real have been?

My theory is the railroad lines built in 1870 paralleled or replaced the old Camino Real.

There are three railroads in Veracruz.

One goes to Xalapa, but is used for freight because of the steep grades. Another goes to Mexico City through Orizaba, and is the old passenger line, "El Mexicano", and later "El Jarocho". And, another line goes south to Tierra Blanca or Alvarado.

Map Manga
Detailed Map with Yellow Lines for Railroads
The Camino Real going north to Antigua and Mexico City left at the "Puerta Mexico".

Today it´s called Cinco de Mayo and would be where it begins at the corner of Calle Montesinos.

The downtown part of the railroads were later built along Calle Montesinos at approximately the same location, and therefore probably stayed close to the original Camino Real.
Central Mexico Small
A Prospect for Manga de Clavo to Check Out
You can see the sand dunes Madame Calderon de la Barca ploughed through in 1843, and how the entourage could have easily arrived at Manga de Clavo around 7AM in time for breakfast.

Later that day they travelled to Santa Fe, which is not far away either. (The town´s legal name is now Delfino Victoria, named after one of the agrarian leaders. The people still call it Santa Fe.)

On Santa Anna´s last trip to Mexico City in 1874, his railroad car passed the hacienda... And that matches up, too.

I left Veracruz one morning taking the road out towards the airport, following the railroad tracks towards Xalapa.
Palm Trees
Remnants of a Coconut Grove

At busy Tejería which is well know for its crispy chicharrones, I took a left at the only stop light in town.

Passing the cars parked in front an oilfield service company, I began to see the remnants of the past: a wide avenue cut through a palm grove. At the end was the "big house" with a circular driveway in front.

The sign out front announced the Offices of the Ciudad Industrial Bruno Pagliai.

I parked the car in front of the main house, I noticed a couple of other outbuildings off to the right.
The Front Door
Entering what was once a mansion with high ceilings where a elegant chandelier must have once hung, I began to look for someone who could help me with some of the history of the buildings.

The atmosphere in the cool office was informal, I explained to an accountant briefly what I was looking for, and was ushered into the large office of the Director of Works and Maintenance, a middle aged engineer.

He seemed interested in my search for "Manga de Clavo" and listened to my story.
The Side Door
The First Airport in Veracruz
He told me that he has worked in the offices since 1982, and must people see the hacienda as having belonged to former President Manuel Avila Camacho.

But, before that, this place was the first airport in Veracruz! The building we were now in was the passenger terminal, and the other buildings were used as storage for air freight and maintenance.

Outside the window was a huge flat area being used as a soccer field which he told me was part of the original runway.
Main Building
Almond Trees
An Old Railroad Engineering Drawing
Then a thought occurred to him, and he "un momentito", "I think I have something you might be interested in." He got up from his desk and walked across the room, searching through his files.

He gave me a satisfied smile and returned to his desk. He opened an old file, flipping through the various pages of official looking government correspondence until he found what he was looking for.

He unfolded a double page foldout engineering drawing of what appeared to be the railroad Right of Way for Km. 413 to Km. 453!
Control Tower
The Original Control Tower
It was very simple and appeared to be 3 slightly curved lines with a legend. The formal looking gothic print was popular in the late 1800´s. The title was "Derecho de Via."

The 3 lines were different scales, and below each line was the name of the property owner. And, in each case the owner was "Antonio López de Santa Anna."

The legend was dated 1881, and mentioned the land was ceded to Santa Anna in 1825. and in 1881, the block regarding the disposition was left blank. I was getting closer!
Wide Door
The Original Wide Door Covered
An Old Map
On the largest scale was the old city of Veracruz all the way down to the train depot and port.

Oddly enough the route was right through town and not north along the present route. I had a copy of an old street car map which showed the railroad tracks going up Zaragoza street along the old beach front. In fact, in front of the Baluarte Santiago.

On the Engineering Drawing there even appeared to be a kind of train terminal where the present day Fire Department is located, a block from the present day Parque Zamora!
Wide Doors
I think at this point we both were amazed at what we´d found.

I noticed there were other people outside his office waiting to see him, so I thanked him so much for his time, and asked if I could come back another day.

I wanted to look at the outbuildings. He invited me to come back any time, and continued on with his day, ushering the men into his office.

Next I went to check out the building next to the main building.
Police Station
The Police Station
Public Safety and Post Office
To the right of the main building was the state of Veracruz Department of Security.

They are responsible for security for the Ciudad Industrial Bruno Pagliai.

Yet, it still looked like a stable. Notice the rounded doors.

gas station
An Old Time Gas Station
A Former Gas Station
Almost in front and off to the left were what looked like a machine shop or workshop area with an old fashioned gas station out front.

Upon taking a closer look, it appeared to be and old water tank.

Horses drink a lot of water in the tropical climate.

Next to the shop was a small plastic recycling plant.

Nobody seemed to mind, so I walked around the side and looked at the bell bottomed windows which at one time had the same fat round doors.
Barred Window
Bell Bottom Window
Stable Door
Old Stable Doors
There was an inner courtyard that also looked like a horse stable. I heard that Santa Anna loved fine horses.

I will continue to look for Manga de Clavo but this looks like the best candidate.

The final question still remains: what could be the origins of the abandoned hacienda at Puente Nacional?

"Manga de Clavo"

Found At Last!

>>> Flash! "Manga de Clavo" Found At Last!

Back to the History Section